The Alkaloids of Kratom, Mitragyna speciosa

21 February 2018
The Alkaloids of Kratom, Mitragyna speciosa

The main reason behind the variability of effects that each type of Kratom Strain and Vein colour depicts uniquely is because of the change in the balance of the Kratom Alkaloids. Kratom leaf hosts numerous different types of Alkaloids that are naturally enriched in offering distinctive and effective medicinal attributes. The following is a brief list of some of the most popular Alkaloids present in the Kratom along with the precise details about their particular characteristic, concentration, and composition in comparison to their actual mass:

Isomitraphylline C21H24N2O4

: A Primary Stimulant of the Immune System and is also ani-leukemic. <1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Speciogynine C23H30N2O4

An Smooth Muscle Relaxant.

>11% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Mitragynine C23H30N2O4

An indole based opioid receptor agonist. It is also an Anti-tussive, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-malarial, Adrenergic and a moderate Stimulant.

> 66% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Isomitrafoline C22H28N205 : No information available

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Corynantheidine C22H28N2O3

 Studies have shown that this compound does not show any Opioid agonistic effect at all. It binds to the μ-Opioid receptors and has been proven to have an antagonistic effect.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Epicatechin C15H14O6

An important alkaloid also found in the leaf of Green Tea. It is anti-mutagenic, anti-leukemic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral and anti-diabetic improving insulin sensitivity and regulating blood sugar levels. It also stimulates muscle protein synthesis and Improves brain and heart health. It Increasing nitric oxide production for improved vascularity, blood flow and endurance.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Isorhynchophylline C22H28N2O4

 This alkaloid shows great therapeutic potential for cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22406453.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367326X12000615

It also stimulates autophagy in neuronal cells, thereby exerting preventive and therapeutic values against neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113202

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

7-Hydroxymitragynine C23H30N2O5

A Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid. 7-Hydroxymitragynine is an oral analgesic and an extremely effective painkiller. It is a partial agonist at the μ-Opioid receptor and therefore causes significantly milder side effects than Morphine. It is only found in trace amounts in the leaves (about 0.004% of the weight of the dry leaf) but it has a potency of about 30 times higher than Mitragynine and 17 times higher than Morphine.

0.01% > 0.2% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Isopteropodine C21H24N2O4

 Neuroprotective. Has immune stimulating activity. Exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria.

 <1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

 Ciliaphylline C23H30N2O5

 An efficient anti-tussive analgesic

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Mitraphylline C21H24N2O4

Has antiproliferative effects and is a new and promising agent in the treatment of human neuroblastoma and glioma.

Effective Anti-inflammatory agent.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

 Ajmalicine C21H24N2O3

Also known as δ-yohimbine or raubasine, Ajmalicine is an antihypertensive drug used in the treatment of high blood pressure It is marked under many brand names and found in a variety of other species of plants. Like corynanthine, it acts as a α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist with preferential actions over α2-adrenergic receptors, underlying its hypotensive rather than hypertensive effects. (Wikipedia)

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Corynoxine A C22H28N2O4

A Natural Autophagy Enhancer which may mean that is has a potential application in the prevention or treatment of Parkinson’s Disease.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Rhynchophylline C22H28N2O4

This is an alkaloid found in certain Uncaria species (Rubiaceae), notably Uncaria rhynchophylla[1] and Uncaria tomentosa.[2] It also occurs in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom),[3] a tree native to Thailand. Chemically, it is related to the alkaloid mitragynine. Wikipedia. This alkaloid is a candidate for several cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases; however, few clinically relevant studies have been conducted.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Corynoxine B C22H28N2O4

As a Subsidiary Dopamine Stabilizer, it aids in amplifying the effects rendered by Corynoxine A

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Speciophylline C21H24N2O4

Anti-leukemic. Not much more information.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Speciociliatine C21H24N2O4

One of the only studies on this alkaloid was a journal in 2004 by Hiromitsu TAKAYAMA a Professor in the Chiba University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Speciociliatine is A C3 stereoisomer of Mitragynine and moderate Opioid Antagonist and contributes to a part of Kratom’s overall effects albeit to with lesser influence than 7-Hydroxymitrgynine.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Tetrahydroalstonine C21H24N2O4

An Efficient Blood sugar stabilizer and an Anti-adrenergic <1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Mitrafoline C22H28N2O5

Inactive alkaloid, no information available.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Akuammigine C21H24N2O3

Inactive alkaloid, no information available.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Speciofoline C22H28N2O5

This was an interesting study done on this alkaloid in 1963 showing that it also acts as an analgesic. It must have been effect since a patent was also made on the discovery of this by Arnold Heyworth Beckett from Bromley, England, assignor to Smith Kline & French Laboratories, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania No Drawing. Filed Aug. 10, 1964

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Stipulatine C22H28N2O5

Originally isolated by A.H Beckett, Calvin M. Lee and A.W. Tackie at the School of Pharmacy, Chelsea college of Science and Technology in London in 1963. Found in sporadic cases in Malaysian & Philippine trees   Structurally similar to Speciofoline.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

Mitraversine C22H26N2O4

Along with Mitragynine, this alkaloid was the first Kratom alkaloid to be studied. It is also found in the leaves in Mitragyna rotundifolia.

<1% concentration of the total alkaloid Fingerprint

 All the above values of the concentration percentages of each of Kratom’s alkaloids listed above is based on random research in scientific literature. There is a lot of between the mix of these alkaloids between different populations of Kratom trees even within the same country or geographical area. The Alkaloids that are mainly responsible for the effects from Kratom are Mitragynine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine and Speciociliatine, in that order of influence since all the others are not opioid agonists or are only found in minute trace amounts.



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